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“Electrical wire” is a catchall term that refers to conductors that route electricity from a power source to lights, appliances, and other electrical devices.
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ELECTRICAL WIRING FOR TAUGHT ON FIXIT LOL WOW
Wires and cables of various sizes bring electricity to a house and route it to all the lights, switches, receptacles, and electrical appliances. Generally speaking, large cables deliver electricity to the house and smaller cables and wires distribute it throughout.
Nearly all household wire is copper, though aluminum is occasionally used. A rubber, plastic, or paper-like coating, called insulation, serves as a barrier to keep the electrical charge (and heat) where it belongs—in the wire (this insulation is stripped from the ends of the wires where connections are made). Bare (non-insulated) conductors are used for grounding
How Electrical Wiring Works
Wire is a comprehensive term commonly used to refer to all types of cable and wire. Technically, an individual wire is called a single conductor; several single conductors twisted together or combined together in a sheath make a cable.
Just as highways can handle more cars than small streets, large conductors can handle more electricity than small ones. The diameter of a metal conductor is indicated by an NIS/IEC number; the smaller the number, the larger the wire. Most household lighting and receptacle circuits are wired with NIS/IEC Standard stranded conductors.
In addition to standard electrical wire, a house has several other types of wire needed for the telephone, cable television, stereo speakers, and so on. Most of these wires do not carry a dangerous electrical current because they operate on very low voltage or carry only sound or picture signals, not electrical power.
Requirements for a Safe Electrical Installation
Electrical equipment must be manufactured safely, and the Transmission Company of Nigeria (TCN) under the Transmission Service Provider(TSP)and other bodies have assumed this responsibility.Conductors and electrical protections must be suitable for the equipment they power. Even if your entire electrical system uses approved components, there may be faults due to conductors and protections of the wrong capacity – the insulation on an overloaded conductor melts, and over-sized breakers do not clear low magnitude faults.
All electrical components carrying voltage must be isolated from the public. In residential and commercial settings, energized devices are close to persons of all ages and professional backgrounds. Electrical installations must be designed to prevent any type of accidental contact with live conductors.
Requirements for electrical installations become less stringent in areas that are only accessed by trained personnel, such as mechanical and electrical rooms. Transformers and switch-gear are dangerous for untrained personnel, even when the equipment meets all applicable codes and standards.
Energy Efficiency in Electrical Installations
A safe electrical installation is not necessarily efficient, but a professional design firm will normally propose measures that help reduce your power bills. Energy efficiency can actually make your installation safer, and LED lighting is a great example of this:
LED lamps can be manufactured free from electrical components, while most other lamp types are prone to breaking – incandescent, halogen, fluorescent and HID.LED lamps also have a lower heat footprint, reducing their chance of starting a fire. In addition, most LED bulbs will not burn your hand if touched accidentally, except for those in high-power applications.
The electrical safety requirements and equivalent codes are always mandatory, while the rules for energy efficiency change by location.
Many electrical design requirements are determined based on other building systems, not directly from the owner’s requirements. Consider the following examples:
The capacity of boilers and air conditioning equipment is directly determined from the heating and cooling needs of the building. On the other hand, the corresponding electrical installation is determined by the load of motor-driven equipment such as fans and compressors.
A similar concept applies for lighting design: Fixtures are selected based area and illuminance requirements, while electrical systems depend on their power consumption.
Design engineers must analyze the power requirements of equipment in the building before specifying the electrical installation that will supply that power at the correct voltage. Keep in mind that designers may suggest energy efficiency measures to reduce total electrical load, and the following are some examples:
Equipment above 1 hp.
LED lighting, as previously mentioned.
ENERGY STAR appliances.
Air conditioning equipment with smart compressors.
Efficient electrical equipment draws less current, reducing the capacity of the electrical system.
Significant cost reductions are possible by optimizing the capacity of wiring, load centers, switch gear and transformers for electrical installations
Once the electrical loads have been identified and optimized, the next step is specifying suitable branch circuits to power them. Note that some loads like lighting fixtures and power outlets can share circuits.
Circuit breakers are sized based on conductor capacities. The conductor is sized based on the load, and in turn the breaker is sized to protect the conductor.
Load centers are distributed depending on branch circuit locations throughout a building.
Feeder circuits connect load centers with the main service equipment.
The main service equipment is sized based on total load.
Note how all loads are combined at the service equipment, which means that energy efficiency benefits add up. Since service equipment tends to be the most expensive in the installation, and it is typically priced based on capacity, significant savings are possible.
Every part of the electrical installation, and your building must pass an inspection before being approved for its intended use.
Electrical installations are the backbone of many building systems, and they must be designed for safe operation. However, over-engineered electrical systems are not recommended, since they drive up project costs drastically.
The electrical design process provides a great chance to deploy energy efficiency measures.
These are very cost-effective.
At Fixit Lol Wow ,we take Pride in figuring out the best wire/cables that routes electricity into your building.
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